Sunday, February 9, 2020
Critical Review - Essay Example The inclusive settings may be community-based such as private preschool programmes in day care centres, or may be public school based preschool programmes. For inclusion to be successful, children with disabilities have to be provided with all the necessary supports, to facilitate their forming friendships with peers, to actively participate in all classroom activities, and to accomplish the individualised goals designed to meet his or her needs. Both the disabled children and their non-disabled peers benefit from the integrated environment (Power-deFur & Orelove, 1997). Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to write a critical review of the article by Odom (2000). First, the article will be summarised, followed by a background section giving a brief account of the reason why the article was chosen, its significance and the relevance to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s research interest. The critical review of the article will include an investigation of the topic and key issues raised in the paper; also the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s findings and suggestions; the arguments put forward by the article; and an evaluation of the strengths and shortcomings of the paper. In early childhood special education, it is now a primary service option to include children with disabilities with normally developing peers with typical growth patterns, in integrated classroom settings. This is a relatively new development, from the 1990s, although inclusion of preschool children was known since the early 1970s. There has been a gradual shift from special education programmes for school age children to those designed for preschool age children, to programmes in which children with disabilities are included in mainstream classrooms, with continued development in the settings offered for achieving improved outcomes (Odom, 2000). In this paper, the author Odom (2000) briefly investigates the literature available on the topic. Some research findings on
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt Essay Discuss the achievements of Hatshepsut on events and issues that she is remembered for in History and assess her legacy to the world. Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful women in the ancient world. She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the first female pharaoh. She ruled longer than any other woman in Egyptian history. Hatshepsut was pharaoh for approximately twenty-one years, from 1479 BCÃ¢â¬â1458 BC. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s successful reign brought wealth to her country she helped shape Egypt into a stronger nation in many ways. Hatshepsut has been widely regarded as one of the most successful pharaohs throughout time and has left behind more monuments and works of art than any Egyptian queen. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were both from a royal background, and her father (Thutmose I) was Pharaoh when she was born. When Thutmose I died, Hatshepsut was about 15 years old, and Thutmose II took over as pharaoh. Thutmose II died after only three or four years of rule but historians have thought that during the reign of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut may actually have been in power. Hatshepsut had had a daughter, named Neferure, but Thutmose II also had a son, named Asset. When Thutmose II died, Thutmose III was still too young to rule, and Hatshepsut began to reign, using the title Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s WifeÃ¢â¬ . This was an issue Hatshepsut had to face as people doubted a woman as a leader but the popularity of her father and her own charismatic presence enabled her to become a full pharaoh seven years into the reign of Thutmose III. Hatshepsut achieved a lot, including expanding territory, broadening trade, building and restoring temples, and maintaining stable order in Egypt. Egyptologists believed that there were no wars in the time she ruled, although evidence is now growing to suggest that Hatshepsut did protect her country against others that were invading Egypt. She mostly focused her efforts on constructing buildings and making Egypt a stronger, wealthier nation through trade. Hatshepsut reestablished the trade networks after the invasion of the Hyksos (a group of mixed Semitic-Asiatics) and in the ninth year of her reign, Hatshepsut sent a number of ships on a trading expedition to the distant land of Punt, located in the South of Egypt. The Punt trade provided goods (such as frankincense, gold and myrrh) that were essential to EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development and Hatshepsut continued to promote these trips. Archeologists and historians have noted that these expeditions have been featured on the walls of HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s temples. These expeditions brought great wealth to Egypt and enabled Hatshepsut to initiate building projects. Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning several projects throughout both Upper and Lower Egypt. Hatshepsut restored and renovated several old buildings that had been damaged or destroyed by invading armies before her reign. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed at the Temple of Karnak she also restored the original Precinct of Mut (a temple used to worship the goddess of Mut). Not only did she restore and renovate, but she also started several building programs, for example, she built the Temple of Pahket, which is an underground, cavernous shrine. She also built her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which took 15 years to build is the most significant monument Hatshepsut has built. Egyptologists have assumed that Hatshepsut ruled a long, peaceful era but evidence is now growing to suggest that Hatshepsut was involved in warfare. The Deir el-Bahri mortuary temple provides us with fragments and inscriptions showing defensive military activity against the Ethiopians during Hatshepsuts reign. Hatshepsut was certainly prepared to fight to maintain the borders of her country and keep her country strong. In 1458 BC, when Thutmose III was due to rule, Hatshepsut disappeared with no evidence of how she died. Whether Thutmose III murdered her or not is not known. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was destroyed and only her liver was found, preserved in a jar. It is likely that Thutmose III arranged for the removal of HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s name from all her constructions, but historians have found no accurate reasons of why Thutmose III did this. Hatshepsut showed to the world and her country that a woman was able to rule with great self-confidence and help bring wealth to their nation, her rise to the throne might have inspired others, such as Cleopatra. She would do anything for her country and was brave and charismatic. Hatshepsut left behind beautiful, sacred monuments promoting EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s tourist industry and further more, bringing wonder to her country in the 21st century. Hatshepsut showed legacy to the world by taking charge and getting things done for the benefit of her country. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t one to stand around and rose to the throne with great confidence, showing her country that she was worthy to be a ruler. Hatshepsut left many monuments as her legacy, however, no construction work ordered by Hatshepsut is more remarkable or impressive than her mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri, which took 15 years to build was found several centuries after its completion, buried beneath hundreds of tons of sand. Although some monuments have been destroyed, she showed to the world that she was a great leader and was appreciated by the people of her country. She has been remembered long after her death not only because of her physical legacy (through her monuments and projects), but also her legacy of success, peace and strategic ideas. This has been led to several makings of documentaries about her, including The Secrets of EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s Lost Queen, which was aired on the discovery channel a few books have been written about her, such as Her Majesty the King by Patricia L ONeill. Hatshepsut was a great leader in Ancient Egypt and she showed confidence bravery to her country, as well as showing to the world that a woman was able to rule with charisma and courage.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
While capitalism is prevailing in the modern society, the issue on whether an amoral profit driven capitalist system is good for the society or not has been raised. Some believe that an amoral capitalist system is the best way to organize individuals together to serve the society. However, others argue that a amoral capitalist system will harm the society instead of benefit it. In this essay, I will be presenting the view of two neoclassical economists, Ricky Griffin and Adam Smith, who support the idea on the amoral capitalism is good for the society. I will also discuss the opposing view presented by Arthur Miller that suggests a profit drive, amoral capitalist system will do harm to a society . Furthermore, I am going to compare and contrast the two view and concluded with MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s view Capitalism encourages business men to make profitable amoral decisions will not benefit our society. While Griffin, Smith and Miller are holding two significantly different views, they both agree on capitalism is an amoral system. According to Griffin, profit is the only incentive for any business to operate under a capitalist system. Smith, father of capitalism, shows his understanding of amoral capitalism by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We address our self, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but to their advantages. Ã¢â¬ (Smith 119) This quote clearly illustrates that people would act out of their own interest instead of considering others under capitalism. Further, Miller compare this amoral capitalism with uncivilized animals when the character, Christ, says Ã¢â¬Å"This is a land of great big dogs, you donÃ¢â¬â¢s love a man here, out eat him! ...the world is that way...This is a zoo, a zoo!Ã¢â¬ (Miller p81) Although ... ... still being debating. I believe capitalism forces business men to make profitable amoral decisions may not benefit our society at all. However, maybe Smith is also correct on capitalism is the best way to serve the society before other solutions appear. And with many evidences from different countries, I have to agree with Griffin and Smith that capitalism is efficient. However, I would only describe capitalism as an insensitive, bloody, efficiently machine that does not have feel and moral. The core of capitalism is still profit driven, materialistic, and money. Ã¢â¬Å"money money money money, when you said it long enough it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean anything.Ã¢â¬ (Miller p73) How important is efficiency and profits, when it does not bring joy and happiness to our society. How can we be well off without compassion, moral value, sympathy and all that feeling that make us as human being.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Unlike any other country in the world, the United States continually experience rising cost of healthcare provision. Wolfe (1999) reports that healthcare costs has been increasing at a high rate for decades, it is estimated that every 40 months, the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) spent on healthcare goes up by 1 percent. Health expenditure which stood at 12. 3 percent of GDP in 1990 increased to 16. 0 percent of GDP in 2006 and is projected to reach 20 percent in the next 7 years. Between 2005 and 2006 alone, healthcare spending increased by 6. 7 percent, exceeding nominal GDP growth by 0. 6 percent, to a whooping $2. 1 trillion, representing an estimated $7,000 spending per person (Kuttner 2008; Catlin et al 2008). Various factors including inflation, aging population and advances in medical technology has been indicted as been responsible for the global increase in health expenditures, however, the American situation appears to be peculiar. Kuttner (2008) contends that the proliferation of new technologies, poor diet, lack of exercise, the tendency for supply (physicians, hospitals, tests, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and novel treatments) to generate demand and the culture of the American litigation, resulting in excessive malpractice litigations and the practice of defensive medicine, all adds together to ensure that the country experiences the largest and fastest growth in health expenditures, while at the same time, defeating efforts at cost containments. Like every other developed country, health insurance systems, especially social health insurance systems constitute the primarily methods of health financing (Carrin and James, 2004). This arrangement ensures that most of the cost of healthcare are paid by third parties, either through public establishments, as in social (public) health insurance systems, or by private bodies, as in private health insurance system, or in some cases, a mixture of both (Wolfe, 1999). The mixture of private and social health insurance is present in almost every country, with variations in their coverage. While in most European countries, social health insurance is deeply ingrained in societal fabric and provides the largest source of funding and insurance coverage (Saltman, 2004), the vast majority of Americans receive their health insurance coverage through employer based private insurance, with the rest of the country covered by any of the several public health insurance programs (Glover et al 2003). It is estimated that employer private health insurance covers approximately 63 percent of the population, with 51 percent of these amount covered by their own employers, while the remaining 41 percent are covered as a workerÃ¢â¬â¢s dependent; 14 percent are covered by public programs, 5 percent covered by individual insurance policies while an estimated 17 percent of the population are uncovered by any insurance (Devi, 2005). Medicare is largely regarded as the primary national (social) health insurance program in the United States, providing coverage for an estimated 44 million Americans over the age of 65. It is also estimated that Medicare provides health insurance coverage for about 7 million Americans under the age of 65 who have a disability or chronic condition (Fact Sheet, 2007). Social health insurance is a vital part of any countryÃ¢â¬â¢s health care and health financing program, in some part of Europe, there is a general contention that social health insurance is not just an insurance arrangement, but a Ã¢â¬Ëway of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢, they are seen as a part of a social incomes policy that seek to redistribute wealth and health risk evenly amongst the population, however, the rising costs of these systems, not just in the United States but across the modern world, threatens the system. Before an analysis of the costs and factors driving costs of social health insurance systems, especially in America and in other European countries, it is important to first briefly describe the underlying principles of the social health insurance system and its difference from the private health insurance programs. This will be followed by a description of the United States Medicare program and some social health insurance programs in selected European countries and then a look at the costs of these programs. Steps taken towards cutting costs of the social insurance programs and the differences in cost cutting approaches between the United States and European Union countries will be examined. Lastly, future approaches that could help ameliorate the financial challenges facing the United States public insurance programs shall be recommended. Social Health Insurance Social health insurance, in its basic principle, in any society achieves a set of societal objectives through its peculiar form of financial cross subsidies, which covers redistribution from the healthy to the ill, from the well off to the less well off, from the young to the old and from the individual to the family. This redistributive focus of any social health insurance program distinguishes it from what is nominally regarded as insurance, thus, in several societies, it entrenches solidarity, income redistribution and is thus seen as a Ã¢â¬Ëkey part of a broader structure of social security and income support that sits at the heart of civil societyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Saltman, 2004:5) Saltman and Dubois (2004) contend that although Germany is considered the source of the modern day form of social health insurance, when it codified existing voluntary structures into compulsory state supervised legislation in 1883, the history of social health insurance (SHI) dates back longer to the medieval guilds in the late Middle Ages. However, they agreed that the structure and organization of SHI over time has considerably evolved; the number of people covered has increased from a small number of workers in particular trades to a larger portion of the population, the central concept SHI has evolved from wage replacement a death benefit into payment for and or provision of outpatient physician services, inpatient hospital care and drugs; thirdly, the administrative structure of SHI has also evolved from cooperative workers association to state mandated legislative character, beginning with Germany in 1883 and the most recent, 1996 in Switzerland. Structurally, social health insurance everywhere possesses three common characteristics. Social health insurance programs are administered privately in both funding and in the provision of health services; as a result of their private administration, social health programs are self regulating, and lastly, as a consequence of their independence and self regulation, social health insurance programs are relatively stable, both in organizational and financial terms (Saltman, 2004). As a fall out of these structural characteristics, social health insurance posses several core components that differentiate them from private health insurance programs. Under SHI, the raising of funds is tied to income of beneficiaries, usually in the form of a transparent and fixed percentage of wages. As a result, contributions are risk independent and thus encourage maximal risk pooling. Also, collection and administration of revenues for the program are handled by not-for-profit and sometimes, state run funds and these funds are usually managed by board members that are usually representative and elected. The United States Medicare program posses most or all of the characteristics of a social health insurance program. For over 40 years, the program has successfully provided healthcare access for the elderly and millions of people with disability. It is regarded as the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s single largest health insurance program and it covers a wide range of the society for a broad range of health services. For example, Potetz (2008) report that one out of ever five dollars spent on healthcare in 2006 came through the Medicare program. The program is also reported to fund, at least, one third of all hospital stays, nationally. In most European countries too, national, public (social) health insurance programs reportedly covers a large proportion of the population, in most cases, reaching up to 100 percent coverage. Saltman and others (2004) reports that in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland and from 1995, Israel, all have health insurance systems where (public) social health programs plays predominant roles in organization and funding of health care services, where between 60 to 100 percent of the population are mandatorily covered. They further argue that even countries like Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom, Greece and Portugal that have a tax funded National Health Service schemes, segments of SHI based healthcare funding also exists. Explaining the difference between social health insurance programs and private health insurance, Thomson and Mossialos (2004) contend that private health insurance play very insignificant role in the health systems of several European countries, either in terms of funding or access to healthcare. Unlike in the United States where more than 60 percent of the population are covered by private employer based insurance, private health insurance programs covers a relatively small proportion of the population and accounts for less than 5 percent of the total health spending, with the exception of France, Germany and the Netherlands. The most common difference between social and private health insurance includes eligibility, risk pooling and benefits. For social health insurance programs, contributions are mostly based on a fixed or varying proportion of wages, without regard for risks, thus a wider proportion of the people are eligible and benefits i. e. health services offered are broader with less out of pocket costs (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004; Saltman 2004). For private health insurance, the reverse is the case in most situations. Especially in for-profit private health insurance systems, contributions are adjusted according to risks and for the most part high risks individuals are rejected or expected to pay higher premiums. Consequently, eligibility requirements are strict; out of pocket expenses might be higher, while services provided vary significantly across programs, depending on an array of factors. Depending on the generally functions and services offered by private health insurance, the relation to social health insurance can be substitutive, complementary or supplementary. Substitutive private health insurance programs provides insurance covers that is otherwise available from the public programs purchased by individuals or groups who are excluded from the SHI. The larger proportion of the US society is excluded from the public insurance programs, which are usually available to the elderly, the disabled or the very poor, the rest of the population must rely on private employer based insurance. However, in European countries with effective SHI, only certain individuals with income above a certain upper threshold are excluded from the public insurance program e. g. in Netherlands and Germany, while the rest of the population are eligible. Complementary private health insurance programs provide cover for services not fully covered by the SHI programs or totally excluded, the Medicare + Choice plans is an example of such covers. Lastly, supplementary private health insurance provides cover for faster access and also increased consumer choices for individuals who can afford it (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004). Eligibility and CoverageÃ The United States Medicare program is essentially for the elderly, thus, individuals are eligible for Medicare coverage if they are citizens of the United States or have been a permanent legal resident for five continues years and over 65 years old. Individuals younger than 65 years of age can also be eligible for Medicare coverage if they are disabled and have been on the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or the Railroad Retirement Board benefits for a period of two years. Further, individuals with end state renal disease (ESRD) or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) known as Lou GehrigÃ¢â¬â¢s disease also qualifies for Medicare coverage. However, many people with disability do not qualify for SSDI benefits and by extension, Medicare. To qualify for these benefits, disabled individuals must have a family member under age 65 who have a work history which included Federal Income Contribution Act tax (FICA), an individual may also qualifies for SSDI on the FICA contributions of a parent as a Childhood Disability Beneficiary (CDB) or as a disabled spouse of a deceased spouse. Whichever qualification route applicable, an individual qualifies for Medicare two years after he/she starts receiving the SSDI benefits, except for the Lou GehrigÃ¢â¬â¢s disease where Medicare benefits starts in the first month SSDI payments are received or in the case of the ESRD where Medicare benefits starts within three months of the first dialysis (Fact Sheet, 2007). As of 2007, it is estimated that Medicare provides cover and health services to about 43 million Americans. This figure is expected to double to 77 million by 2031 when the baby boomers of the post World War II period start to retire. However, as mentioned previously, SHI in European countries offer universal coverage that is mandatory in some countries. Coverage for these countries varies from 63 percent in Netherlands to 100 percent coverage in France, Israel and Switzerland. In most of these countries, it is usually the highest income groups that are either allowed or required by law to leave the social health programs for private health insurance (Saltman, 2004:7). Benefits Benefits for Medicare members have continually been modified. The original program has two parts, Medicare Part A and part B. The Part A program known as Hospital Insurance, covers hospital stays with stays in skilled nursing facilities for limited periods if certain qualifying criteria are met. Such criteria include the length of hospital stay, which most be three days, at least, excluding the discharge day and stay in skilled nursing facility must be for conditions diagnosed during the hospitalization. Medicare Part A allows up to a maximum of 100day stay in skilled nursing facilities, with the first 20 days completely paid for by Medicare and the remaining 80days paid in part and requiring a co-payment from the beneficiary. The Medicare Part B covers services and products not covered by Part A, but on an outpatient basis. The benefits under this coverage includes physician and nursing services, laboratory diagnostic tests, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations x-rays and blood transfusions. Other services include renal dialysis, outpatient hospital procedures, Immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients, chemotherapy, limited ambulance transportation and other outpatient medical treatments carried out in a physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s office. This coverage, to some extent, also includes medical equipments like walkers, wheelchairs and mobility scooters for individuals with mobility problems, while prosthetic devices, such as breast prosthesis after mastectomy or eye glasses after cataract surgery are also covered. The recently added Part C and D of the Medicare benefits slightly deviate from the original Medicare concept. After the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 came into effect, Medicare beneficiaries were allowed the option of receiving their Medicare benefits through private health insurance plans if they do not want to go through the original Medicare plans. These became known as Medicare + Choice as beneficiaries could choose any private health insurance plans and have it paid for by Medicare. The Medicare + Choice or Part C arrangement later became known as the Medicare Advantage Plan after the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 came into effect. The Part D plan, on the other hand, covers mainly prescription drugs and anyone in the original Plan A or B is eligible for this plan. However, in other to receive the benefits of the Plan D, a beneficiary must enroll and be approved for a Stand-alone Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) or Medicare Advantage plan with prescription drug coverage (MA-PD). However, because Plan D is effectively operated by private health insurance companies, there are no standardized benefits, like the plan A and B; the private insurance companies could choose to cover some drugs or classes of drugs and not cover others, with the exception of drugs excluded from Medicare coverage. Beneficiaries are therefore restricted to the drugs coverage of the plans they choose (Merlis, 2008; Potetz, 2008). Contributions towards Social Health Insurance Medicare financing, like social health insurance everywhere, is financed through a complex mix of taxes, contributions, co-payments and the likes. The most important source of financing for the Medicare expenditures is through the payroll tax imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act and the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954, while other sources of financing includes general revenue through income taxes, a tax on Social Security benefits, and payments from states required for the Medicare drug benefits which started in 2006. In addition to these, beneficiaries also contribute directly to Medicare financing through premiums, deductibles and co-insurance. It is reported that income cases, physician do charge beneficiaries an additional out-of -pocket Ã¢â¬Ëbalance billingÃ¢â¬â¢ to cover for services rendered (Potetz, 2008). The federal payroll taxes are paid by the working population or by the beneficiaries throughout their work history. The tax equals 2. 9 percent of gross wages, with half (1. 45 percent) deducted from the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s salary and the other half paid by the employer. Initially, there was a ceiling on the maximum amount any single person can contribute; however, beginning from 1994, the maximum limit was removed. Self employed people who do not have an employer to cover the other half of their taxes are mandated by law to pay the full 2. 9 percent of their estimated earnings. However, the contributions from the beneficiaries vary considerably depending on the plan and also range from premiums, deductibles, co-payments or in some cases, the balance billing mentioned previously.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Necklace Assessment The story begins by showing the reader the main character, Mathilde Losiel. The narrator tells the reader about Mathildes thought towards her life. The character seems unhappy because she thinks that by some error she was born lower in the hierarchy, than she was made for. You are drawn into the story when you see the differences between her supposed life and the life she is living. You feel that she might get to live her supposed life when the story progresses. You are also held in by the event of her husband getting an invite to a party of the rich. Guy de Maupassant shows you all about both the main characters personalities in the opening of the story. He does not give away the story line as easilyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The final key event was the twist of Mathilde finding out the necklace she borrowed was a fake. The events are linked together by the working of the characters towards it. The major twist is at the end of the story when Madame Foriester (The friend Mathilde borrowed the necklace of) tells Mathilde and finds out about the truth about the necklace. Which the Losiels worked ten years re-paying a real copy of the necklace. The time covered is about twenty to thirty years. The events moved fairly simple, just forward moving events with the narrator explaining the information within the jumps in time. The story is quite realistic as it could happen and no character where completely artificial. The main characters where Mathilde Losiel and Monsieur Losiel. The most important minor character was Madame Foriester who was Mathildes rich friend from her convent days. Guy de Maupassant shows their personalities mostly by dialog. For Monsieur Losiel a small description of his status is given, the rest is pointed out by dialog said and actions towards his wife. Madame Foriester is shown with admiration and dialog. Whilst Mathilde Losiels personality is shown by her own dreams and her reactions. Mathilde is intersting as she dreams of being rich, beautiful and popular but when he has done something wrong surprising she does not complain but pays it off. Monsieur Losiel is interestingShow MoreRelated The Necklace Essay1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The NecklaceÃ¢â¬ Around the world, values are expressed differently. Some people think that life is about the little things that make them happy. Others feel the opposite way and that expenses are the way to live. In Guy de MaupassantÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The NecklaceÃ¢â¬ , he develops a character, Madame Loisel, who illustrates her different style of assessments. Madame Loisel, a beautiful woman, lives in a wonderful home with all the necessary supplies needed to live. 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Assess each distribution strategy from a qualitative point of view. Breakdown of revenues, costs and profits per order Necklace | Ã | Ã | | Units | 25 | | Ã | Price/Unit | $17.00 | | Ã | Revenue | | $425.00 | Ã | Manufacturing | $8.05 | | $201.25 | Profit | Ã | Ã | $223.75 | Earrings | Ã | Ã | Ã | Units | 12 | | Ã | Price/Unit | $12.00
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Philosophy Paper Sally Margarit Sep, 27th 2014 What is Justice? How do we know what justice is? This has been the question that we have essentially been discussing throughout all of our classes this semester. The idea that the normalities of society are the pillars for what defines what is right and what is just, is one argument that in most cases holds true. As children in our culture, we are all taught a very generic set of rules. At a very young age we learn not to harm others, steal, lie, or cheat. As children we cultivate this idea of criminals as bad people, who have somehow broken the moral code that society has so easily instilled in us as youth. However, despite societys moral code, I believe that the notion ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He argues that if something is morally unjust to begin with, it is still morally unjust even though his life is on the line. The argument is that an unjust action is simply always unjust. However, I dont believe justice to be that simple. As children we are are taught that certain things are always wrong. We learn at a very young age that killing is wrong, and in our innocent world we believe that all people who kill belong in jail. I too had that belief. I thought those who murdered belonged in jail for the rest of their lives. Last year I had the opportunity to meet with a group of 5 male prisoners who were doing life sentences for murder. Upon meeting with this group of prisoners, I and other members of my senior year ethics class were extremely judgmental. We were all strong believers in our countrys justice system and we all assumed that these men deserved to rot in prison because their actions had to have been so gravely unjust. To my surprise, these five men were probably some of the most polite and kind men I have ever met. One was as old as my grandfather, and even reminded me a lot of him. These men were convicted murderers. They had taken life in vain, but I am not sure I myself can condemn all their actions to be so terribly unjust. One by one they each humbly told us their stories. All 5 of them had been convicted before the age of 18. They were just kids when they were convicted to be societys scum and were confined toShow MoreRelatedThe Philosophy Of Philosophy And Philosophy998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPhilosophy is the attempt at answering or understanding the questions that the being who is philosophizing yearns to know or wishes to understand. The importance of what the philosopher wishes to know or understand is not a determinate factor in what it means to do philosophy. The act of doing philosophy is not defined by the subject of examination but by the driving passion of knowing and understanding. This means that an individual that wishes to know why a laptop is a laptop or why is it thatRead MorePhilosophy : Philosophy And Philosophy1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages As a student at Richland college, I have never studied philosophy before, and I have heard very bizarre claims about what philosophy is. For that reason, I wanted to take a philosophy class so I can learn more about it. Due to lack of knowledge, I used to think philosophy as involving a kind of mystical significant, sometimes resulting from observing problems without solutions. In addition, sometimes I accustomed that philosophy is nothing more than a name that does nothing more than feelingsRead MorePhilosophy : Philosophy And Philosophy1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages As a student in Richland college, I have never studied philosophy before, and I have heard very bizarre claims about what philosophy is. For that reason, I wanted to take a philosophy class so I can learn more about it. Due to lack of knowledge, I used to think philosophy as involving a kind of mystical significant, sometimes resulting from observing problems without solutions. In addition, sometimes I accustomed that philosophy is nothing more than a name that does nothing more than feelings ofRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Philosophy And Philosophy1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Philosophy is recognized by the questions being asked, and the methods used to answer them. These questions are usually the ones that are open-ended, abstract, or the ones that lead to controversial answers. Due to the openness in philosophy, the uncertainty, there is not just one viewpoint that is completely accepted by all to be true. This leads to many disputes and conversations that are ultimately driven by th e core of philosophy, which is its latin translation, the love of wisdom. Now, theRead MorePhilosophy And Philosophy Of Philosophy Essay2033 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWhat is philosophy? Philosophy could be defined in many ways, but I believe that the Oxford dictionary defines it best: Ã¢â¬Å"The study of the theoretical basis of a particular branch of knowledge or experience or a theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for behaviourÃ¢â¬ . That definition basically encapsulates the entirety of what we have discussed during the time that we have been in this course. It covers the basic ideals of both eastern and western philosophy quite eloquently over the spanRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Philosophy1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof whether philosophy from hundreds of years ago, are still relevant to today and the society of which we live? The answer, simply put is yes. It is still relevant because we still do question everything, we still wonder about topics that were discussed b ack then, and because philosophy is the basis of critical thinking, a quality that is still useful today. We often ask questions, which in turn led us to the discovery of the discipline of philosophy. The primary reason for philosophy is to gainRead MorePhilosophy And Its Importance Of Philosophy861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPhilosophy and Its Importance Doing philosophy as many philosophers demonstrate over time and in the present is to simply question the understanding of what is known and not known or accepted and unaccepted. This is to say, that philosophers must question all aspects of life and all the surrounding dimensions of the world. In doing so, the philosopher is trying to grasp a firmer or different understanding of the truth that is either presently or not presently known; whether comforting or not comfortingRead MorePlato, Philosophy, And Philosophy929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Plato is philosophy, and philosophy, Plato.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ralph Waldo Emerson. This was the first quote I read regarding Plato when I first picked up the Great Dialogues of Plato, and turned it over to read the back cover. This quote struck me for some unknown reason and I instantly couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t wait to begin reading the dialogues of Plato and begin to understand why he is regarded as one of the great philosophers. The first pi ece I read, was The Apology, spoken by the great philosopher Socrates and writtenRead MorePhilosophy And The Modern Philosophy2035 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesUpon talking about the history of modern philosophy, one of the most important philosophers, who is considered as the father of the philosophy in this period, is Descartes. He was a pioneer for the movement of the new trend of philosophy and became a break between the medieval philosophy and the modern philosophy. Being educated in the environment of medieval philosophy, specifically in the school of Jesuits, Descartes received the system of scholastic philosophy as his foundation for making a new startRead MorePhilosophy624 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSurname Instructor Course Date Survey of Mexican Philosophical Thought The philosophy of the Mexicans is a production of philosophers from ancestries from Mexico, residing either within or outside the country. The general philosophy surfaced with the introduction of the first school by the Spanish conquerors, with teaching and publications on philosophical treaties. As such, it is critical to deny that these thinkers got education from the European schools, making it quite impossible
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The attacks of 9/11 affected the United States by increasing discrimination, endangering the health of many Americans, hurting the economy and changing foreign and security policies. Much of the tension and terrorism between the Middle East and the United States can be traced back to the twentieth century. In the early 1920s oil became very essential to the United States, therefore the U.S. invested in the Middle East oil industry. Since both sides of the world were connected through this investment, the Middle East was more exposed to western society. Ã¢â¬Å"As Western ideas spread through the region, many Muslims feared that their traditional values and beliefs were being weakenedÃ¢â¬ (Appleby, 1032). In order to continue following the traditional Muslim religious laws, Muslim movements were created to overthrow pro-Western governments in the Middle East. Even though Muslims believed that terrorism is the opposite of their faith, they supported these movements and were called fundamentalist militants. In 1947 the United Nations divided Palestine into two sections in order to give the Jews land that they can call Ã¢â¬ËhomeÃ¢â¬â¢. One section was ca lled Israel, and the other section was to become a Palestine state. This was the beginning of a military war; the Palestinians wanted their own nation therefore they began planning raids and terrorist attacks against their neighbor Israel. The United States gave aid to Israel, and immediately became Muslim target. The United States had aShow MoreRelatedThe Attack On 9 / 11 Essay1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe north tower. Everyone was confused about what was happening, to include me. This is really the only memory I have specifically of the attacks on 9/11, when I was 5 years old. I knew and understood what had happened that day. What I never heard about was the legislation that passed in the days to follow. After the confusion, some panic about when the next attack would happen followed. The American people wanted action to be taken against the group that had attacked them. Apart from speeches, reassuringRead MoreThe Attacks Of 9 / 111247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe attacks of 9/11 was an act of terrorism that happened in New York. Two airplanes crashed into the World Trade Center in New York, one into the Pentagon in Virginia, and another one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania intended to strike in Washington D.C. Three thousand civilian lives were lost that day. It was said by Al-Qaeda group, Osama Bin Laden that the purpose of 9/11 terror was to take revenge for the United States. The typical morning which turned out the historical tragedy terrorRead MoreThe 9 / 11 Attack Essay1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor them to live a life where they are not looked down at and are not oppressed or discriminated by others. As many of us may know Muslims have been frowned upon in the United States for the reason that there have been various terrorist attacks, the 9/11 attack being one of the major happenings, caused by people from that race which has caused horror to many creating marginalization towards all the Muslim Society. People who have not done wrong or have no intention of causing any harm in the MuslimRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack on 9/11641 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe terrorist attack on September 9, 2001, known as 9/11, was the most devastating terrorist attack to date, due to the high death toll, the suspected secondary explosion found in the Twin Towers, and the explosion at the Pentagon. In order to learn about the 9/11 Terrorist Attack, one must learn more about what happened. On September 9, 2001, at 7:59 am, The American Airlines Flight 11 took off from Boston Logan Airport with 92 people onboard. At 8:14 am, the United Airlines Flight 175 took offRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks On 9 / 112048 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAbstract The terrorist attacks on 9/11 made a great impact on our nation both economically and psychologically. This paper reviews the findings of some of the research that has been done since this tragic event. A big topic is the initial response our government had after the attack. This includes local, state and federal government. Many new emergency response protocols have been put in place based on the rescue efforts that took place that day. It took the lives of many for our country to understandRead MoreThe 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction The 9/11 terrorist attack is known as the worst in American History. A normal day on September 11th, 2001, nineteen terrorist from the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda prepared to hijack four planes. Two planes were flown into New York City hitting the towers of the World Trade Center. A third plane flew just right outside of Washington, D.C hitting the Pentagon. The last plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. All attackers got on to the planes safely and were prepared to takeRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks Of 9 / 111645 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the United States (US) government has focused on terrorism as the biggest threat to stability and national security in the homeland. There have been controversial laws enacted which tested an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitutional rights versus the security of the country as a whole, military engagements in foreign countries designed to stop terrorism overseas before reaching the homeland, and a number of la w enforcement and government initiatives implemented to identifyRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack 9 / 11 Essay1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMultiple groups and civilians have responded to the terrorist attack 9/11 in different ways, having different viewpoints, values, and ideologies. George W.Bush who was the President of the United States of America at the time of the 9/11 terrorist attacks was against what occurred. George W.Bush talks about the incident as being a monumental day in our nations history, and how he went from being a Ã¢â¬Å"President primarily focused on domestic issues to a war time PresidentÃ¢â¬ , something he never anticipatedRead MoreThe 9 / 11 Terrorist Attacks1816 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthere is so much to choose from. One of the most recent and most tragic events in American history were the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Hundreds of lives were lost, leading to extreme reformation of the United States surveillance and homeland security systems. The 9/11 terrorist atta ck was an important event in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history that has had lasting effects on American society. On September 11, 2001, four planes were hijacked by 19 Arab Islamist extremists and used as weapons of mass destruction. TheRead MoreThe Attack on Mumbai and 9-11613 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesThe attack on Mumbai ( 26/11 , 2008 ) has been an extremely serious tragedy proportions. Not only shook Mumbai people , but also the country as a whole . Its impact has been in politics in South Asia. Terrorism, as such, has been dominating the political scene since the last decades , especially after the cowardly attack on World Trade Center on 9/11 , 2001. Although the official version of the law has undergone severe questioning , yet this event was used by the U.S. to promote its objective of